Evidence-based Conservation is an approach that recently emerged, largely from Europe, to improve resource management decisions. Evidence-based conservation is based on an analogous approach in the medical sciences called the Cochrane Collaboration. The premise behind these approaches is that decisions, whether they be in the medical or conservation fields, are often based on anecdotal evidence, which is seldom scrutinized as to their long-term effectiveness. The intent of evidence-based conservation is to conduct systematic appraisals of the evidence used to make resource management decisions and making those appraisals readily available to managers for future decisions. The approach is related to the concept of adaptive management, but practitioners of evidence-based conservation suggest that it has an added value of providing information from which to base an initial assessment; thus reducing the need to learn by mistakes. Thus, the ideas of evidence-based conservation may be well suited to use in concert with adaptive management.