Soils are the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems. Healthy soils provide diverse habitats for plants, animals, and fungi. Soil microbial communities provide critical plant nutrients, such as nitrate and ammonia. Soils are the primary reservoir for the water that drives all life processes in arid ecosystems. When soils lose the structure that allows them to provide these ecosystem services, a feedback cycle can begin where increased soil erosion reduces soil’s ability to support plants and fungi, and the loss of plants and fungi further increases soil erosion.